Wednesday, 3 April 2019

Writing Task 1 - Academic







WRITING TASK 1
As already established, the task 1 is different for both the academic and general tests. In this case, you are expected to write at least 150 words. Let us consider what the academic test entails.

  • Academic Writing Task 1: In this task, you will be given one or more graphics ( charts, graphs, tables or diagrams) and be asked to write a short report, summarizing and comparing the main features in the graphics. 
Steps To Take
Step 1: Determine the Task
The first thing you must do before writing is to recognize the type of graphic(s) (is it a chart, a bar graph, a histogram, a table, a line graph, a pie chart or a diagram?)  and the type of information it contains.

Step 2: Determine the topic and form the topic sentence
The next step to take is to determine the topic of the graphic(s) by reading the title and description. Then use the topic to write the topic sentence.

Step 3: Make comparisons
Try to identify those features you can compare in your graphic(s) and then look for similarities and differences in those features.

Step 4: Make an outline
After you have done all the things mentioned in the aforementioned steps, the next vitally important step to take is to make an outline. Why is this step very important, you may wonder. Imagine a man who sets out to build a house but does not have an architectural design of the building. How successful would he be in accomplishing the task? He will surely mess up the job. The same is also true when writing. An outline forms the skeletal framework on which your writing would be built. It acts as compass, guiding you as you write. What is more? It makes your writing to be well organized or coherent.To write an outline, start with the topic you determined in step 2 and the comparisons you got in step 3. Then add supporting details to describe the comparisons.

Your outline should take this format
  • Introduction
                  - Topic Sentence
  •  Body
                 - First comparison
                          - Supporting detail 1
                          - Supporting detail 2
                          -
                          -
                                              
               - Second comparison
                       - Supporting detail 1
                       - Supporting detail 2
                       -
                       -                                              
  • Conclusion

Step 5: Write the introduction
The introductory part of any write-up is so very important. In fact, your introduction would go a long way in determining whether or not your reader would want to continue reading your write-up or not. It should be able to arouse the interest of your reader. So it is imperative that you make it catchy.

Now how do you write your introduction for the academic task 1? It should state the topic sentence and summarize the ideas you want to discuss. Don't just write the topic sentence as this would amount a weak introduction. All in all, the first sentence of your introduction should contain the topic sentence and the next sentences should tell what comparisons  you will make. The rule of thumb is:

GOOD INTRODUCTION = TOPIC SENTENCE + SUMMARY OF MAIN POINTS

We shall take some practices pretty soon.

Step 6: Write the body
After writing the introduction, you should be set to write the body. It's important to note that your first paragraph should be the introduction. The next paragraph marks the beginning of the body. The number of paragraphs you would write for the body is a function of the number of comparisons you have to make. If you have two comparisons, the body would have two paragraphs. If you have three comparisons, the body would have three paragraphs and so on.

Let me just quickly mention that when you are writing the body, you should try to use words to describe the trends you notice. For example, you can use words like  rose, increased, decreased, grew, fell, dropped, decline, rise, increase, drop e.t.c.

Step 7: Write the conclusion
The conclusion should be the last paragraph. It is a general statement about the comparisons you made in the body. You can start your conclusion by using words like: In general, Generally, Overall, On the whole, All in all e.t.c.




Practice
Now let's have a practice session and see how we can apply the steps above.

Question



The table below shows the average time and money spent at different types of restaurants.

Summarize the information by selecting and reporting in the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
               Write at least 150 words.
 



Sit-down Restaurant
Cafeteria
Fast Food Restaurant
Average cost of food
$10.00
$7.00
$4.50
Average time spent eating lunch
45 minutes
30 minutes
20 minutes
Average cost of dinner
$17.00
$9.50
$5.00
Average time spent eating dinner
60 minutes
45 minutes
20 minutes


Solution
The question above is a typical academic writing task 1 question. Now let's follow the steps above to answer this question.

Step 1: Determine the task
Recall that in order to determine the task, we must identify the type of graphic. What's the type of graphic? It's obviously a table


Step 2: Determine the topic and form the topic sentence
The topic of the graphic is always gotten from the box accompanying it, that is, the box before it. So what do you think the appropriate topic sentence would be? Since the box shows the average cost of eating lunch and dinner at three different restaurants, the topic sentence could be: "Amount of time and money customers spent on three types of restaurants". Quite easy, right? So always coin out your topic sentence from the information found on the box attached to the graphic.


Step 3: Make comparisons
From the table, it can be observed that we can make two main comparisons.

  • Main comparison: The average cost of meals in the three types of restaurants. Under this we can compare the    
          - average  spending at the fast food restaurant
          - average spending at the cafeteria  

          - average spending at the sit-down restaurant                                            
      
    • Main comparison: The amount of time spent eating in the three different types of restaurants. Under this we can compare the     
                    - average time spent eating at fast food restaurant
                    
                    - average time spent eating at cafeteria
                    
                    - average time spent eating at the sit-down restaurant
    Can you recall the next step to take? ----------------------------------------
    Step 4: Make an outline
    Do you still remember why the outline is very important? Among other things, it helps you to organize your writing. Your writing should be organized into three principal parts, viz: introduction, body and conclusion. Now let's see how we can form these three parts using the example we are considering.
    1. Introduction: Remember the rule for writing a good introduction?

     GOOD INTRODUCTION = TOPIC SENTENCE + SUMMARY OF MAIN POINTS

     The introduction for this particular example we are considering could look like:
    The table depicts the average amount of time and money customers spend eating meals at three different types of restaurants. The cost of meal in each of the restaurant is significantly different. There is also a marked difference in the time spent eating.
     Did you take note of the format above? The first sentence (i.e. topic sentence) is a combination of the type of graphic and the information displayed by the graphic. The second and third sentences contain a summary of what you want to compare. That's how your introduction should look like.
          2. Body: Recall that the body of your writing is an in-depth display of what you want to compare. For this example, we want to compare the average cost of meals in the three types of restaurants and the average time spent eating in these restaurants.  Also since you two main comparisojs, the body should have two paragraphs ideally. So the body for this example could look like:
    On the average, the cost of eating lunch and dinner is quite different in each of the three types of restaurants. A customer who eats in a fast food spends on average $4.50 for lunch and $5.00 for dinner. On the other hand, at a cafeteria, the average cost of these meals are respectively $7.00 and $9.50. Meals at a sit-down restaurant are even more expensive. Lunch there costs more than twice as much as that at a fast food restaurant and dinner is more than three times as expensive.
    Customers at each of the three restaurants also spend different amounts of time eating. Lunch and dinner at a fast food restaurant take only 20 minutes on average. At a cafeteria they take 30 minutes and 45 minutes respectively. However, at a sit-down restaurant, customers spend 45 minutes eating lunch and dinner.
            3. Conclusion: The conclusion could be like this:
    All in all, customers who spend less money on food also spend less time eating, while those who spend more money on restaurant meals also spend more time eating them.

    So the overall write-up would look like this

    The table depicts the average amount of time and money customers spend eating meals at three different types of restaurants. The cost of meal in each of the restaurant is significantly different. There is also a marked difference in the time spent eating.

    On the average, the cost of eating lunch and dinner is quite different in each of the three types of restaurants. A customer who eats in a fast food spends on average $4.50 for lunch and $5.00 for dinner. On the other hand, at a cafeteria, the average cost of these meals are respectively $7.00 and $9.50. Meals at a sit-down restaurant are even more expensive. Lunch there costs more than twice as much as that at a fast food restaurant and dinner is more than three times as expensive.
    Customers at each of the three restaurants also spend different amounts of time eating. Lunch and dinner at a fast food restaurant take only 20 minutes on average. At a cafeteria they take 30 minutes and 45 minutes respectively. However, at a sit-down restaurant, customers spend 45 minutes eating lunch and dinner.

    All in all, customers who spend less money on food also spend less time eating, while those who spend more money on restaurant meals also spend more time eating them.




     

    Exercise

    Try this exercise


    The table shows the sales at a small restaurant in a downtown business district

    Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant


          Write at least 150 words.
     
     


    Mon.
    Tue.
    Wed.
    Thur.
    Fri.
    Sat.
    Sun.
    Lunch
    $2,400
    $2,450
    $2,595
    $2,375
    $2500
    $1,950
    $1,550
    Dinner
    $3,623
    $3,850
    $3,445
    $3,800
    $4,350
    $2,900
    $2,450


     Guide To Exercise
    • Introduction  
                     Topic Sentence______________________

    • Body 
                     Comparison 1_________________________
                           
                                 Supporting detail 1__________________

                                 Supporting detail 2___________________

                                 Supporting detail 3________________(if available)

                     Comparison 2________________________________

                                 Supporting detail 1_____________________

                                 Supporting detail 2_____________________

                                 Supporting detail 3________________ (if available)

                     Comparison 3__________________________(if available)

    •   Conclusion

        A1 GRADE



    2 comments:

    1. The first thing you must do before writing is to recognize the type of graphic(s) (is it a chart, a bar graph, a histogram, a table, a line graph, a pie chart or a diagram?) and the type of information it contains. 2V0-31.19 dumps

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